The essence of privatization of prisons

The essence of privatization of prisons

Prisons are some of the most essential elements of the society that have existed with humanity for centuries now. These correctional facilities have been collectively run and organized by the state government for various reasons. For some eminent reasons, these correctional facilities have played a major role in the ensuring of discipline and order in the society through the incarceration of the deviant members of the society. The thought of privatization of the state-run prisons is a new idea that has been necessitated by the fact that the institutions have been facing various significant challenges. Firstly, the state-run facilities have a major challenge especially to do with the fact that they have a significant quality control problem. Most prisons around the globe; even in the first world nations have an imminent challenge of the fact that the services that are provided therein are rather poor. Services and facilities such as the quality of foods, water and sanitation have particularly been established to be highly deplorable mainly due to the fact that the governing authorities have little financial allocation from the government to cater for the enhancement of their services.

In addition, most state services have been effectively marred by the fact that the government facilities are plagued by the challenge of poor management and leadership. The form of leadership absolved by the government upon these penitentiary services and systems has particularly allowed much corruption to penetrate and thus leading to a financial and management catastrophe where the leaders engage in corrupt deals such as allowing incarcerated individuals to be in possession of drugs and contraband goods in the prison.  Lastly, the state run facilities have also been facing a logistics challenge as most of the facilities have no strategic management systems that seek to integrate the prisoners with the rest of the society. This has been attributed to the existing monotony that have been evident in the government where the existing systems of ruling have little chance of being challenged and actively engaged to produce dynamic results. It is therefore eminent that the incarceration facilities are in dire need of revolutionizing.

The most probable solution lies in the privatization of the facilities and handling them over to the private domain to manage. Such a move would be the best due the various reasons. Firstly, the private sector has a better capacity of managing the correctional facilities due to the fact that the private sector has a higher capacity of better management of resources in an accountable way. With the private sector running the entire management of the correctional faculties, it would be much easier for quality control and monitoring to be enhanced and ensured. Proper privatization would perhaps also enhance the need to commercialize the facilities and thus improve the face of the facilities even as they desire to attract more investors and prospectors.

In addition, the facilities being run by the private sector expose them to more radical ideas of changing the institutions for better. In addition, the private sector’s form of management would be essentially free from the monopoly type of management of the government that has seen the deterioration of the essence of the facilities. It would be much easier for the private sector to manage their affairs independently that under the stipulations of the government. This leaves the institutions under a better revolutionary management under the private sector than under the government.

English 101 015


9th March, 2015

Does the Changing of Environment Lead To Changing Consumer Habits?

Toyota’s Prius model is the market leader in the category of petrol electric hybrid vehicles. Today there is an inclination towards buying hybrid cars in the United States. Consumers in the United States like hybrids and EVs more than anything else. To a very large extent the market for high MPG and hybrid cars is driven by consumer attitudes regarding their environment. Concerns for the environment are the primary concerns that drive the US consumers towards buying hybrid cars and environment friendly vehicles. The extent to which the US market for high MPG, hybrid cars and hybrid trucks driven by consumer attitudes speaks about the concerns regarding the environment and climate change. The consumer values, lifestyles, and beliefs that drive the market for environmentally-friendly vehicles are also evolving. Thus, the need for the transition to environment friendly vehicles can be understood in the various different contexts.

An important determinant is the current state of energy policy and fuel availability in the United States which affects the transition to high MPG and hybrid vehicles, similar to the shift in natural gas powered busses and trucks. (“Rogers”, 2014).There exists in our country a rhetoric over US oil production and it relates with two diverse opinions: one which proves that the United States has growing energy independence or whether domestic oil exploration is an environmental detriment. This is the rhetorical situation for US automakers. There exists an undue exaggeration regarding fuel and energy production within the country.

The concerns are all over the world. Climate change refers to a huge shift in the statistical distribution of the patterns in climate. The changes in the climate relate to weather conditions like solar radiations, volcanic eruptions and global warming. Global climate changes have a lot of effect on the environment. Glaciers are shrinking, the ice on the rivers and lakes is breaking up fast, and there is rampant deforestation. All the harmful effects which scientists had predicted would have resulted climate change  which are now occurring namely due to the loss of  ice in seas, heat waves and an accelerated rise in the level of the sea. (“Global Climate Change”, n.d.)

Ever since the dawn of the modern era the consumption and the distribution of energy have become a priority of mankind. The ‘I don’t care’ attitude can now no longer be carried on and this has to change as well. The need for changes is at its peak or else we shall have nothing left for our future generations. The rate at which the environment is being degraded is high posing some real concerns for us and for the future generations.

According to Consumer Reports, a telephone survey taken in April of 2012 that consisted of about 1702 adults were asked the reasons for next car purchase. Out of the reasons stated the most significant one was fuel economy. Some of the most important altruistic reasons for purchasing of the vehicle were to improve the air quality, reducing oil use, cutting of GHG or Greenhouse gas emissions and the improvement in the overall environment of the country. There have been numerous studies conducted in the past that have attempted to quantify  of the needs and desires that are important factors in the LDV or light duty vehicle  purchase of the decision making. It is a known fact that states that the American consumers strive for the need for big cars and trucks that have large and very powerful engines. Fuel economy holds less prominence as the diesel and gasoline prices in the United States are much lower as compared with the other parts of the world.  These attitudes are a reflection of the mindset of the consumers regarding the environment and their surroundings. Their growing concerns are what influence their buying decisions. This is evident from the number of factors that consumers weigh before buying a car. These include costs, practicality performance, social influence and fuel economy or emissions.  The Effects of Oil Drilling talks about peer influence. It says that the situation is critical when it comes to advanced power trains and alternative sources of fuels. Green vehicles or environmentally friendly vehicle produce less harmful effects for the environment as compared to combustion engine vehicles that are running on diesel or gasoline.

As stated in the earlier part of the essay there is an undue exaggeration regarding oil and gas production in the US.  There is a lot of ambiguity in the whole situation, the oil companies claim to be energy independent and still there is a growing voice that talks about oil exploration being a detriment. Bradley L. Robert mentions that the oil companies in the US have announced their earnings and their earnings are at an al ltime high. As the economy is booming and the production of oil is increasing many harmful ecological and environmental effects have occurred.

The whole process of extracting and drilling oil is a very complex one and it does leave too many opportunities for error and accidents The water produced by drilling of oil is called as ‘produced water’ and is hence quite toxic for the humans. It contains many harmful chemicals.

People are shifting to buying hybrid cars in the USA.

Cobb Kurt writes that the energy policy of the United States is a full hodgepodge of disconnected policies that are designed for some very specific constituencies that has no exact goals. (Cobb Kurt, 2015). The country does have subsidies for nuclear power, (Koplow, 2011) for fossil fuels, wind and solar power. There are energy standards for most of the appliances and standards for automobiles which are miles per gallon. (Appliance and Equipment Standards Program, n.d.) Fossil fuels are the leading sources for almost 80% of the total world energy and they are finite. The total share of the powering of the sources of energy is dependent upon fossil fuels. What is even more alarming is the fact that they are finite sources of energy and climate change that has been induced by the burning of the fossil fuels is proceeding at a much faster rate than the other models identified. As the prices of gas have sky rocketed and the President has called to lift a ban on the offshore drilling a debate has begun over the risks and rewards for the slated approach. This means that the President has called for a ban on the offshore drilling practices so that the environment could be saved on. There are questions on the impact that it has on land. Oil drilling has a significant impact on the land.  Throughout the 90’s there were many attempts to increase the standards for fuel efficiency and gas taxes.  The result is the current situation in the United States where the cost of gas is about $5 per gallon and that is the reason why the US automakers are in quite a big trouble. High cost of gas is an important factor why the manufacturing takes a backseat. If the cost of gas is high then it is obvious that the consumers will not buy cars and vehicles for it will be difficult to use them in the longer run. Fuel availability is also difficult in the United States. United States is the leader in the consumption of petrol at 19.2 million barrels everyday as of 2010. (“Fossil Fuels”.2014).

For most consumers choosing an automobile is a very complicated process requires a high- involvement and research on the part of the consumers. The rising costs of diesel has forced companies to charge extra money for their products. Companies are stating that 80% of the trucks shall buy in the next five years will be fueled by natural gas. This means that the 80% of all the trucks manufactured shall run on natural gas as it will be the cheapest means of fuel.

Scott Perry from Ryder Systems Inc says, “”The economics favoring natural gas is overwhelming,” (“Smith”, 2012)

In conclusion, the changing attitudes of the American people are a reflection of the growing concerns towards the environment. The environment is changing and alarmingly. Therefore, we need to step up the efforts to be able to save the environment from destruction. The rhetoric over the US oil production is a huge factor in determining the choices of the consumer. The oil prices are rising and hence the shift towards the production of environment friendly vehicles is relevant too.










Works Cited Page:

Bradley L. Robert. Oil Company Earnings: Reality over rhetoric. (2011), Web, 3rd march, 2015. Accessed from,

Bryce Robert.  Climate Rhetoric vs. reality. (2014). Web, 3rd March, 2015. Accessed from,

Cobb Kurt. Current US energy policy: Risk management that is worse than ever. (2013). Web, 4th March, 2015. Accessed from, <>

Global Climate Change. “The current and the future consequences of global change.”. (n.d.).  Accessed on 7th March, 2015, Accessed from,<>

Rogers John. “The Whole Truth About Hybrid Cars: Is There one in Your Future”. (n.d.). Retrieved from

The Wall Street Journal. “Will Truckers Ditch Diesel for Natural Gas?.”. (2015). Accessed from,<>, Accessed on 8th March, 2015

The Effects of Oil Drilling. (Environmental effects of Oil Drilling. (2015). Web, 3rd march,2015. Accessed from,


Summary of the problem







Cell tower memo

Student name












Effective communication is essential for a modern and upcoming estate. When there lacks a proper line of sight between the base station (cell tower of the service provider) and the end users (mobile clients), communication is hindered. In this scenario, the ACME wireless communications Inc. is facing complaints from the customers due to poor communication services often leading to breakdown of GPS services once the clients steer from the line of sight. Coverage is a challenge that will be addressed in this memo in an attempt of designing the cell tower appropriately to increase the provision of service and thus reduce the number of customer complaints. The solution provided is based on the assumption that both the uplink and downlink follow the same path in the event that electromagnetic field flows in both directions. The essence of the design is to maximize coverage at a reduce cost. Therefore, different models will be evaluated to determine the most suitable one. To achieve this, several parameters are to be taken into account among them the density distribution of the subscribers of the service. The population density distribution of the subscribers enables an estimation of the expected earnings per geographic section. The comparison of the best design will be based on the profit generated for a given period.


In providing a solution to the above problem, there are some assumptions that hold true. For example, from the sender to the receiver (base station to the mobile) signal propagation is inherent.  The frequency of the cell is 850 MHz resulting to a wavelength of 0.3529 m. the tower is considered to be 250 ft. high which is equivalent to 76.2 m. the following equation is also utilized to calculate the path loss in dB: . In the equation, d represents the distance between the base station and the antennae. Since this is a slanting distance, the Pythagoras theorem holds true in the calculation of d.  The equation a2+b2=c2 holds true where b is the distance from the foot of the tower to the antennae and a is the height of the tower. With a frequency of 850 MHz and a wavelength of 0.3529 m, the expected strength of the signal in terms of speed or velocity may be calculated as follows;

V=λ F



Since the distance d is given as a variable, different numbers can be varied to determine the cost. The path loss can be calculated with the variations of d as either 8000m, 6500m, 6000m, 5000m, 3000m or 1000m spanning from areas 1 to area 7. Therefore, the resultant path loss may be as follows:

And d is replaced by the above variables.

Replacing d with 8000 L results to 109.093. This value will be applied in the first case for area 1.

The variables for the link budget for the design for area 1 with 8000 m are summarized in the chart below

In this design option, utilizing the ACME X7468C Gain gives the maximum benefits of approximately $12000. The next option chosen is the furthest extreme of close to area 7 and the results obtained are tabulated in sheet two and shown in the graph.

From the two extremes the changes are minimal and almost undetected which means that placing the tower at the center will serve the entire locality and reap maximum benefits for the business. Therefore, the final placement of the tower is as below. In conclusion, it is paramount to set a rational distance to serve all the subscribers. In this case, placing the tower at the center ensures concise distribution of the network across all the subscribers.



Introduction to Information Systems



Ford is facing a dilemma on how to adopt emerging internet technologies and ideas of high-tech industries.  These are in relation to their interaction with suppliers. Proponents of embracing the new emerging technological trends in business were of the view that the company already lags behind when it comes to adopting technology, and the need to respond rapidly is apparent. There was another group that was rather cautious in their approach. They articulated on the need of considering the difference between the auto business and Dell-a different form of business emerging in a different industry- prior to incorporating any form of technology into their business framework. Shareholder value and customer responsiveness is a characteristic in Dell worth acknowledging. Ford has experienced growth in revenues, employees and operations since its inception. Effects of globalization are apparent in the auto business. Ford has embarked on a restructuring plan called Ford 2000 which calls for a reduction in costs that is to be achieved through reengineering and globalization of corporate organizations and processes. Great emphasis is placed on proper understanding of; Ford’s existing supply chain, customer responsiveness initiatives, their existing supply base, production system and retail network. The Dell integrated supply chain system is well analyzed, and its significance to the supply chain strategies of Ford determined.





The existing supply chain is the key historical legacy that has affected the ability of Ford to move to a BTO model. The supply base in place is as a result of history. In the early 1990s, Ford focused on decreasing the number of suppliers dealing with the company directly. Their interest shifted towards building long term relationships with a given number of suppliers who would manage relationships with a large number of suppliers (Ford Motor Company, 2001.). In return, these suppliers would give Ford yearly price reduction.

Another key factor hindering the shift is the organizational structure of Ford. Purchasing is independent of organizations, a powerful tool that ford has capitalized on.


Virtual integration is the application of internet technology in an organization in place of physical components. Technology has facilitated coordination across boundaries for dell. This has resulted to appropriate returns for their investors. The supply chain is well coordinated. It has greatly benefited from specialization (The Power of Virtual Integration, 2008). Dell can tailor their products to the needs of their customers. What is more, their marketing strategy is market driven. Their inventories are low with rapid turnover and have a short order to delivery time.


The practical challenges that Ford should address revolve around the organizational structure of Ford and changes in its supply network. Ford should increase competition among its suppliers instead of maintaining close relationships with a limited number of suppliers. This will make the market competitive for them hence a reduction in the cost of their operations. They should also focus on directly dealing with their customers. Changing the historical organization structure of Ford is another challenge because it has greatly capitalized on it since time immemorial.


Ford should capitalize on the benefits accruing from adopting internet technology in their business structure. Their design strategy will strictly be based on the needs predetermined by their mainstream customers. Their pricing strategy will be market driven in place of the existing strategy that is driven by the budget of the program in normal circumstances. Irrespective of the fact that there will be no maximization on production, there will be a schedule of production in place that would greatly reduce the working cycle of Ford. What is more, orders will be placed based on the demands of their customers unlike the prevailing scenario whereby orders are placed based on capacity constraints and allocation. Additionally, their inventories will have a high turnover.




Havard Business School. (March, 1998). The Power of Virtual Integration: An Interview with Dell

Computer’s Michael Dell. Retrieved from:

Ford Motor Company. (2001, March). An Interview with Dell … (n.d.). Retrieved from: